Conveners: Pietro Zucca (ASTRON - Nederlands institute for radio astronomy), Eoin Carley (Dias - Dublin Institute for advanced studies), Monica Laurenza (INAF- Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali Area di Ricerca Roma Tor Vergata)
Abstract: Monitoring space weather from the ground is to date still the most reliable source of space weather monitoring. This typically means smaller latency in the data retrieval and a more robust reliability, especially for space-based instruments that might be vulnerable to the same space weather conditions they are monitoring. However, while a single space-based instrument may be able to monitor the Sun and the Sun-Earth environment continuously, ground based instruments suffer from having a limited view of the Sun due to the night time and the local weather conditions, or they are limited by the earth's magnetosphere, requiring instrumentation at different latitudes. Therefore, Space weather monitoring networks are key to ground-based monitoring to assure a 24h or full spectral/energy coverage or to guarantee observations due to bad weather conditions. In this session, we encourage contributions from existing networks of space weather ground-based monitoring, including radio instruments (solar monitoring, IPS, ionosphere), GIC monitoring (magnetometers, power grids), optical instruments and neutron monitors networks, as well as space weather studies and tools conducted/operated with ground-based instrument networks.
Conveners: Colin Forsyth (UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory), Malcolm Dunlop (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), Melanie Heil (ESA)
Abstract: The Sun-Earth system is hugely under-sampled. Earth’s magnetosphere, typically encompassing a volume of over a quadrillion cubic kilometres, is monitored by a handful of spacecraft at any given time. Advanced warning of the incoming solar wind is currently provided by a few spacecraft orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 point. Despite these limitations, we have built a plethora of empirical and physics-based models as well as human expertise for space weather forecasting. More observations will improve our understanding and ability to forecast space weather, through improvements to models and data assimilation, but what level of ‘multi-point’ is appropriate and how do we make best use of this information? Scientific multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster, THEMIS, MMS, Swarm and STEREO have greatly enhanced our knowledge of the dynamics of the magnetosphere and the solar wind, especially when used together. However, detailed analysis and understanding of these data takes a lot of time and effort. How multi-point do we have to go to provide both the necessary databases for model development and the inputs to forecasting, what are the implications for orbital traffic, and how best do we make use of existing multi-point datasets and techniques in space weather?
Conveners: Stephan G. Heinemann (Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany), Eleanna Asvestari (University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland), Camilla Scolini (Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, US)
Abstract: Interplanetary coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks, stream and co-rotating interaction regions (SIRs/CIRs) and high speed solar wind streams are the primary drivers of strong to minor geomagnetic activity and play a major role in shaping the heliospheric environment in which they propagate. Therefore, understanding the heliospheric solar wind, ambient magnetic field, and their solar sources are vital in validating and refining space weather forecasting efforts. The aim of this session is to address the characteristics of these flows, the heliospheric background solar wind structure in which they propagate with respect to their solar source regions through the means of observations and models. Newly launched missions including Parker Solar Probe (PSP) and Solar Orbiter (SolO), as well as, established missions such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREOs) provide a multitude of information that may be used to validate, improve, and refine current knowledge in this field. We encourage submissions relating to solar wind sources both for slow and fast wind, solar wind acceleration/ejection, interplanetary coronal mass ejections and shocks, stream interaction, and the structure of the magnetic field and plasma topology at the source surface and in the inner heliosphere. We advocate for authors to present their work that utilizes observations and/or models with relation to space weather.
Conveners: Ciaran Beggan (British Geological Survey), Juliane Huebert (British Geological Survey), Aziza Bounhir (University of Marrakech)
Abstract: Large and rapid changes of the geomagnetic field can produce numerous effects on surface or near-surface technology and have potentially detrimental impacts on its users. These effects include, for example, induced geoelectric fields which lead to Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) in grounded technology, effects on radio propagation for over-the-horizon communication and retardation of timing signals in GNSS systems leading to loss of proper functionality. Understanding how and why extreme geomagnetic fluctuations occur is vital for developing models and methodologies to predict their effects during space weather events. In this session, talks on measuring, modelling and predicting externally-driven ground geomagnetic activity are solicited. Research on the effects on ground-based technology such as GICs in power grid, pipelines and railways, as well as the impact on positioning, navigation and timing applications are welcome. In addition, presentations on the broader or unintended consequences of space weather effects on ground technology can signpost and explore future avenues of research.